ABAP Data Dictionary

Preface – This post is part of the ABAP Beginner series.

ABAP Data Dictionary

Before we jump directly in to Data Dictionary concept, let us learn something about basic SQL operations. To perform any operation on Data we need to perform two things: Define Data and Manipulate Data. Both of these operations are achieved by SQL [Structured Query Language] operations. SQL is a language that helps us to communicate with our database.

SQL can be, therefore, divided into two parts:



DDL part of ABAP is managed by ABAP Dictionary. Data Dictionary is used to create and manage data definitions (metadata).  ABAP Dictionary helps to create user defined types (domain, data elements, structures and table types) which are further utilized by ABAP objects (tables or views).

DML part of ABAP is written using open SQL commands like:

SELECT To Read Data from Database
INSERT To Insert Data in Database
UPDATE To Update current Data in Database
MODIFY To Insert/Update Data in Database (whichever applicable)
DELETE To Delete from Database


Features of ABAP Dictionary:

  1. DOMAIN: A reusable object that is assigned to a Data Element and it is used to define a value range (F4 Help) and provides technical attributes (Data Type, Number of character, etc).
  2. DATA ELEMENT: A reusable object that takes attributes of a Domain. It is used to create Field Labels & Field Documentation that appears as field help (F1 Help).
  3. TYPES [STRUCTURE]: A reusable object that is used to create a global structure. TYPE option in ABAP is also used to create DATA ELEMENTS and TABLE TYPES.
  4. TABLE TYPES: A TABLE TYPES is used to create global Internal Table. A TABLE TYPE needs a LINE TYPE that acts as the workarea of that Internal Table.
  5. TABLES: A TABLE is used to create a physical table definition in database. These are defined in ABAP Dictionary independently of the database [that means every Table in independent with respect to other tables and storage].
  6. VIEWS: It creates logical View of more than one table. By Logical View we mean a view that is presented to the user not that is actually stored in database [also called Physical View].
  7. SEARCH HELPS: These are the objects that are used to create and assign Input Help (F4 HELP) to screen fields.
  8. LOCK OBJECTS: These are used to synchronize the access of same data by different users.

Advantages of ABAP Dictionary:

  1. Data Integrity
  2. Data Consistency
  3. Data Security
  4. Data reusability



  • Barry Allen

    A Full Stack Developer with 10+ years of experience in different domain including SAP, Blockchain, AI and Web Development.

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